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Posts Tagged ‘fungicide’

Get rid of Plant Fungus from the Garden

Saturday, May 29th, 2010
Fungus

Image by elycefeliz via Flickr

Garden fungus can ruin any crop, but it does not have to.  Preventing fungus diseases before they destroy your crop is essential, and proper garden management may keep chemical fungicide off consumables.

The number one fungicide is developing a disease resistant garden. Garden location, right composting and garden management and occasional use of pesticide treatments all aide in the ability of a garden to ward off pests and disease. Proper care for a garden will result in healthy plants, excellent crop production and future soil health.

Garden Location

Beckerman recommends placing a garden in a sunny well-drained area. Too much shade encourages the growth of fungus. Stagnant water also promotes fungal infection in plants. Locating a garden in the highest point available with the least tree cover will help any garden resist fungi and various other diseases.

Composting

Composting is another suggestion from garden experts. Mixing natural organic matter in soil promotes the development of soil microbes necessary to combat fungus advancement. Healthy soil promotes healthy plants, and healthy plants generate their own fungicide in the form of healthy immune systems ready to fight off infection.
Proper Garden Management

Proper garden management is another excellent fungicide. Experts recommend watering in early morning so plants dry quickly and never working in the garden when plants are wet. Overnight wet plants promote the spread of infection. Working on wet plants promotes the spread of bacteria, nematodes and fungus. Experts also suggest using only enough fertilizer to meet plant needs, as over-fertilization–especially nitrogen rich fertilizers-will promote fungal infection.

Organic Fungicides

When all else fails, experts suggest, “reaching for the chemicals.” Some vegetable garden fungicides are available that meet organic specifications, and those persons wishing to remain chemical free will want to start with them. Fungicides with the active ingredients Copper or Sulfur are approved for organic production, according to Beckerman. These fungicides will not leave a residue on the vegetables or penetrate the plant and build up harmful levels of toxins. Experts warn that improper diagnosis of a fungus or improper use of a fungicide may result in treatment failure.

Chemical Fungicides

If no other option works to treat the infection of a vegetable garden, chemical fungicides might work. Chemical fungicides may leave harmful residues in or on vegetable garden contents. Experts list fungicides with the active ingredients chlorothalonil, Captan, Mancozeb and Maneb as garden fungicides not approved for organic gardening.

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White Mold of potato

Tuesday, April 27th, 2010

White mold of potato( also called sclerotinia stem rot) is caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary.

The disease well develop in moist conditions and is especially common in fields with overhead-irrigation such as by means of a center pivot. Agricultural practices that promote extensive canopy growth and keep relative humidity and free moisture in the crop canopy for extended periods of time and reduce wind movement, favor disease development.

Symptoms of white mold

White mold symptoms first appear as water soaked lesions 14 to 20 days following row closure. Lesions usually first appear in the intersections between the stem and branches, or on branches and stems in contact with the soil. These become quickly covered with a white cottony growth that can spread rapidly to nearby stems and leaves if moisture is present for several hours. As lesions expand they can girdle stems causing foliage to wilt. White mold is also often accompanied by bacterial stem rot, especially under wet conditions.

When conditions become dry, lesions dry out and turn beige, tan or bleached white in color and papery in appearance. As infected tissue decays, hard irregularly shaped resting structures called sclerotia form on the inside and outside of decaying tissue. No stem rot symptoms are observed on below-ground tissues( i.e. roots, stolons or tubers).

Management of white mold disease

Effective management of white mold requires implementation of an integrated disease management approach. The disease can be controlled primarily through the use of cultural practices and foliar fungicides.

Good fertility management to prevent excessive canopy development will also suppress white mold. As such, cultivars that naturally produce thicker, dense canopies are at higher risk of white mold, than those that produce sparser canopies.

Use of the biological control agent Conithirium minitans, a parasite of S. sclerotiorum sclerotia, to reduce the sclerotia bank in the soil has yielded conflicting results between the regions where the experiments were conducted.

The most widely cultivated commercial growers of potato are equally susceptible to Sclerotinia stem rot. In the absence of resistant cultivars, chemical control with fungicides remains the most effective management tactic. Successful fungicide products include Iprodione (a.i. iprodione), Botran (a.i. dichloran), Omega (a.i. fluazinam), Quadris (a.i. azoxystrobin), Topsin (a.i. thiophanate-methyl) and Endura (a.i. boscalid).

The long-lived sclerotia can be killed by flooding for about 5 weeks. Rotations with nonsusceptible crops, including potato only every third year, along with removal and destruction of infected plants, help reduce this disease. Avoid
overhead irrigation.

Field, greenhouse and in-vitro experiments have shown that there are no significant differences in the effectivness of these compounds. Using of these fungicides at initial full bloom are effective in reducing the number of infected stems.
However, using of the same fungicides made at or prior to row closure following label recommendations were found to offer erratic protection at best.

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Early blight potato disease

Monday, August 10th, 2009

Early blightEarly blight potato disease is causes by  Alternaria solani fungal pathogen. Alternaria solani is generally thought to be a weak parasite.
Early blight is often a disease of senescence, where the older leaves are infected first. The disease can progress upward; attacking newer tissue as the older leaves droop and dry up. Under severe epidemics, leaves may be killed prematurely.
The disease first becomes evident in senescent leaves, in form of dark necrotic lesions in a characteristic concentric pattern. Contamination of the tubers is manifested by dry, dark, round depressions on the peel.
If cases of severe infestation it is possible loss of yield, due to early leaf death. Dry rot develops also on the tubers during storage.
Most of the early varieties are susceptible.

Management and control of early blight potato disease


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Use seed potatoes free of the disease. Seeds infected with the disease may damp off during germination.
Minimize stress by maintaining adequate soil moisture and fertility.      Avoid watering during the hottest hours and immediately after storms.
Early blight can be prevented with some fungicides: azoxystrobin, potassium bicarbonate, hydrogen dioxide as well as the biological control agent Bacillus subtilis
Avoid harvesting non-mature tubers. Protect against insect infestations.

Preventative measures include ensuring the healthy circulation of air in garden rows and rotating crops so that solanaceous plants are only present every three years, and choosing resistant cultivars.

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