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Posts Tagged ‘Pests and Diseases’

Disease control on Tomato Plants

Thursday, June 10th, 2010
A scanned red tomato, along with leaves and fl...

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No vegetable garden is complete without a few tomatoes. Who can resist a large, juicy Better Boy or a handful of cherry tomatoes? Like any plant, the tomato is susceptible to various ailment. The smart gardener will be prepared to combat ordinary predicaments, so as to insure a healthy harvest.

Ordinary predicaments with Tomatoes

There are certain ailment that affect tomato plants, and many are easily controlled. Sometimes, however, infected plants must be removed to protect the rest of the garden. Poor weather and soil states frequently determine which kinds of disease will attack tomatoes. ordinary predicaments to watch for include blossom end rot, timely and late blight, and specific kinds of soil fungus.

Blossom End Rot

Blossom end rot is a most irritating predicament, and is easy to notice. Fruits look normal on the top, but will have large, black spots on the blossom end. This is cautilized by a calcium deficiency in the plant. Blossom end rot can be combated by adequate soil preparation before planting. The soil pH should be maintained at 6.5; compost and bone meal can be added to the bed to supply calcium. Once the predicament has already occurred, control is complex. Calcium can be added in the form of Epsom salts, crushed egg shells, or powdered milk. It may be best to remove the infected fruits.

Fusarium and Verticillim Wilt

Fusarium wilt is cautilized by a fungus in the soil. Leaves begin to yellow at the bottom of the plant, and they eventually turn brown and wilt. Plants will die if the fungus is not controlled, and any plants that show symptoms must be removed and ruined. No chemical control is offered for this fungus, and care must be taken when replanting in infected soil. Try buying fusarium wilt- resistant plants, which will have an “F” after the name of the plant on the seed packet.

Verticillim wilt is as well cautilized by a fungus that originates in the soil. The fungus can live in the soil for many years, so crop rotation is a good thought. Symptoms include leaves that turn yellow and dry up. This disease is most ordinary during cool weather. Affected plants should be removed.

Tomato Blight

Tomato blight is a ordinary annoyance for avid tomato growers. timely blight affects the foliage, stems, and fruit of tomatoes. Symptoms include dark spots on leaves; infected leaves as well die prematurely. Copper and sulfur sprays can keep this fungus from growing, but sometimes the plant will need to be removed if it is too far gone. This prevents further contamination in the garden. Late blight affects the leaves and fruit of tomatoes and stretchs rapidly. Cool, wet weather is generally the cautilize of late blight. Symptoms include gray spots all over leaves and white mold. utilize copper spray to control late blight.

Prevention is the Key

As with any garden ailment, prevention is key. Once these predicaments have developed, they are complex to control. Tomato growers should prepare beds thoroughly before planting, spray tomato plants timely with fungicide control, feed plants regularly, and try not to overwater or let plants dry out. Every home garden can boast of a bountiful tomato harvest if plants are well cared-for.

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White Mold of potato

Tuesday, April 27th, 2010

White mold of potato( also called sclerotinia stem rot) is caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary.

The disease well develop in moist conditions and is especially common in fields with overhead-irrigation such as by means of a center pivot. Agricultural practices that promote extensive canopy growth and keep relative humidity and free moisture in the crop canopy for extended periods of time and reduce wind movement, favor disease development.

Symptoms of white mold

White mold symptoms first appear as water soaked lesions 14 to 20 days following row closure. Lesions usually first appear in the intersections between the stem and branches, or on branches and stems in contact with the soil. These become quickly covered with a white cottony growth that can spread rapidly to nearby stems and leaves if moisture is present for several hours. As lesions expand they can girdle stems causing foliage to wilt. White mold is also often accompanied by bacterial stem rot, especially under wet conditions.

When conditions become dry, lesions dry out and turn beige, tan or bleached white in color and papery in appearance. As infected tissue decays, hard irregularly shaped resting structures called sclerotia form on the inside and outside of decaying tissue. No stem rot symptoms are observed on below-ground tissues( i.e. roots, stolons or tubers).

Management of white mold disease

Effective management of white mold requires implementation of an integrated disease management approach. The disease can be controlled primarily through the use of cultural practices and foliar fungicides.

Good fertility management to prevent excessive canopy development will also suppress white mold. As such, cultivars that naturally produce thicker, dense canopies are at higher risk of white mold, than those that produce sparser canopies.

Use of the biological control agent Conithirium minitans, a parasite of S. sclerotiorum sclerotia, to reduce the sclerotia bank in the soil has yielded conflicting results between the regions where the experiments were conducted.

The most widely cultivated commercial growers of potato are equally susceptible to Sclerotinia stem rot. In the absence of resistant cultivars, chemical control with fungicides remains the most effective management tactic. Successful fungicide products include Iprodione (a.i. iprodione), Botran (a.i. dichloran), Omega (a.i. fluazinam), Quadris (a.i. azoxystrobin), Topsin (a.i. thiophanate-methyl) and Endura (a.i. boscalid).

The long-lived sclerotia can be killed by flooding for about 5 weeks. Rotations with nonsusceptible crops, including potato only every third year, along with removal and destruction of infected plants, help reduce this disease. Avoid
overhead irrigation.

Field, greenhouse and in-vitro experiments have shown that there are no significant differences in the effectivness of these compounds. Using of these fungicides at initial full bloom are effective in reducing the number of infected stems.
However, using of the same fungicides made at or prior to row closure following label recommendations were found to offer erratic protection at best.

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